Home

Chondromalacia patellae

Chondromalacia patellae (also known as CMP) is an inflammation of the underside of the patella and softening of the cartilage.. The cartilage under the kneecap is a natural shock absorber, and overuse, injury, and many other factors can cause increased deterioration and breakdown of the cartilage Chondromalacia patella er et navn man begynner å gå bort fra, for nå kaller man det helst patellofemoralt smertesyndrom. Man kaller det også fremre knesmerter og løperkne. Jeg har vedlagt en link til en tidligere artikkel her på Lommelegen om tilstanden. Den bør du lese Chondromalacia patellae er et beslektet begrep som ofte benyttes synonymt med patellofemoralt smertesyndrom. Det er imidlertid enighet om at skader på leddbrusken mellom patella og femur må være påvist for å kunne stille diagnosen chondromalacia patellae Tidligere kalt chondromalacia patellae, men chondromalacia regnes nå som en avklart årsak til knesmerter. Symptomer og funn. Murrende smerter rundt, eventuelt under, patella. Kan oppstå akutt eller øke gradvis Chondromalacia patellae refers to softening and degeneration of the articular hyaline cartilage of the patella and is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain. Epidemiology Tends to occur in young adults. There is a recognized female predilection..

Chondromalacia patellae - Wikipedi

Tilstanden kalles da ofte chondromalacia patella. Overflatiske bruskforandringer gir vanligvis ikke smerter, men pasienter med dypere bruskskader ned til knokkelen kan ha smerter fra området. Diagnostikk Diagnosen stilles klinisk, og det er sjelden indisert med undersøkelser med vanlig røntgen, CT eller MR Knee pain is very common and one taping technique has been very effective for knee cap pai

Chondromalacia patellae will typically present as pain in the knee region, known as patellofemoral pain. You may feel sensations of grinding or cracking when bending or extending your knee Chondromalacia patella often occurs when the undersurface of the kneecap comes in contact with the thigh bone causing swelling and pain. Abnormal knee cap positioning, tightness or weakness of the muscles associated with the knee, too much activity involving the knee, and flat feet may increase the likelihood of chondromalacia patella Chondromalacia patella describes early changes in the cartilage on the underside of the patella. If not effectively treated, these early changes may eventually lead to osteoarthritis in the knee joint where the kneecap and femur meet. Diagnosis Chondromalacia patellae occurs most often in young adults and teenagers. It is more common in women. The reason why damage occurs to the cartilage is not clear. It is thought that the kneecap (patella) may rub against the lower part of the thighbone (femur) instead of gliding smoothly over it

Chondromalacia patella knee pain is often caused by a lot of running and jumping. In fact, it's often called runner's knee because of the association. But having this mouthful of a condition does not mean you have to give up sports or exercising altogether 'Chondromalacia patella' Brett Sanders, MD Center For Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic 2415 McCallie Ave. Chattanooga, TN (423) 624-2696 When the knee moves, the kneecap (patella) slides to remain in contact with the lower end of the thigh bone (trochlear groove of the femur). Normally, this motion has almost no friction: the frictio Chondromalacia patella is the most common cause of chronic knee pain.; Chondromalacia patella has also been called patellofemoral syndrome. The pain of chondromalacia patella is aggravated by activity or prolonged sitting with bent knees.; Abnormal tracking allows the kneecap (patella) to grate over the lower end of the thighbone (femur), causing chronic inflammation and pain

Chondromalacia patellae (CMP) is referred to as anterior knee pain due to the physical and biomechanical changes [1]. The articular cartilage of the posterior surface of the patella is going though degenerative changes [2] which manifest as a softening, swelling, fraying, and erosion of the hyaline cartilage underlying the patella and sclerosis of the underlying bone. [3] Chondromalacia patella treatment. The aims of Chondromalacia patella rehabilitation are to decrease pain and inflammation, strengthen weak muscles of the knee and hip, stretch tight muscles and gradually return to full fitness. Patella taping is often a key part of CMP treatment and rehabilitation. Reducing pain and inflammatio Chondromalacia patella is a common knee condition where there is softening and damage to the cartilage on the back of the patella (kneecap). Chondromalacia causes front knee pain, swelling and clicking/grinding noises when moving the knee. It tends to affect young, healthy and often sporty people, most commonly affecting adolescents and young adults

Lommelegen - Chondromalacia patellae

Chondromalacia can affect any joint, but the most common location is the underside of the kneecap. It usually begins as a small area of softened cartilage behind the kneecap (patella) that can be painful. Eventually, more of the cartilage softens, and the softened cartilage can crack or shred into a mass of fibers chondromalacia patellae, også referert til som løperens kne, er et helseproblem der brusk under patella eller kneskålen blir myk og til slutt degenererer. Dette problemet er utbredt blant unge idrettsutøvere, men det kan også utvikle seg hos eldre voksne som lider av leddgikt i kneet Patella betyr kneskål og femur betyr lårben. Syndrom betyr at tilstanden består av flere symptomer og tegn. Knesmertene er lokalisert til forsiden av kneet i og ved kneskålen. I de fleste tilfeller finnes ikke noe galt med kneet bedømt ved røntgen og andre bildeundersøkelser.En tilstand med diffuse smerter i og rundt kneskålen Chondromalacia patellae (CMP), also known as patello-femoral pain syndrome or patello-femoral stress syndrome, is a syndrome that causes pain/discomfort at the front of the knee. It is associated with irritation or wear on the underside of the kneecap, or patella

Patellofemoralt smertesyndrom - Symptomer og behandlin

Chondromalacia patella symptoms (patellofemoral syndrome) include a vague discomfort of the inner knee area, aggravated by activity (running, jumping, climbing, or descending stairs) or by prolonged sitting with the knees in a moderately bent position.Some people with chondromalacia patella may also have a vague sense of tightness or fullness in the knee area, particularly if the knee becomes. Chondromalacia Patella Treatment Take Proper Rest. If you were suffering from chondromalacia patella, then it is essential to give your knee some rest. It is the best to treat runner's knee pains. While taking some rest will help in reducing pressure on joints or kneecaps

Patellofemoralt smertesyndrom - Kne - Muskel- og

How is chondromalacia patella treated? The most common way to treat symptoms of chondromalacia patella is to rest the knee. Other ways to treat the symptoms include: Placing of an ice or cold pack to the area for 15-20 minutes, four times daily, for several days. Do not apply ice directly to the skin. Wrap the ice or cold pack with a towel Chondromalacia patella, often called runner's knee is a condition where the cartilage under the patella breaks down, causing increased knee pain. Whether you've personally experienced it or treated patients experiencing it, this type of knee pain is not fun Diagnosing and grading chondromalacia patella. The main symptoms of chondromalacia (swelling, grinding, and pain) are unfortunately common to many disorders of the knee. So the only way to truly be sure of a diagnosis of chondromalacia is by getting an MRI, which allows us to see the cartilage inside the knee Chondromalacia patella - redusere eller slitasje av leddbrusk på undersiden av kneskålen. Leddbrusk er en glatt stoff, som dekker lårbeinet, tibia og patella. Disse strukturene danner kneleddet. Leddbrusk er foret disse tre bein og gir dem mulighet til å bevege seg fritt og lett i krysset av stammen

Chondromalacia patellae is sometimes used synonymously with patellofemoral pain syndrome. However, there is general consensus that patellofemoral pain syndrome applies only to individuals without cartilage damage. Cause. The condition may result from acute injury to the. Objective: To assess the therapeutic effect of hyaluronate acid (HA) injection through the subpatellar route for treatment of chondromalacia patellae (CP). Methods: Eighty-eight patients with the diagnosis of CP were enrolled in this prospective study, including 38 with early CP (CP group) and 50 with advanced CP (patellofemoral arthritis group) diagnosed based on image presentations Chondromalacia patella is focal degeneration of the articular patellar cartilage. It may be spontaneous or secondary to primary incidents like trauma. It is more common in females in the young adult age group. The usual presentation is anterior k..

Chondromalacia patellae Radiology Reference Article

Chondromalacia of the patella can be a disabling disease in a young, otherwise healthy individual. A summary of the clinical symptoms shows that in a patient in his early twenties, with a history of chronic knee discomfort which does not respond to conservative treatment, and which includes weakness, tendency to locking, occasional swelling of the knee, and pain especially on the medial side. Chondromalacia patella can be initially treated using simple measures such as providing rest to the knee and avoiding physical activities. A surgery can be performed if the non-surgical treatments do not bring any relief. Recovery period or healing time for chondromalacia patella varies with different patients and is dependent on the kind of surgery done Chondromalacia Patellae, by definition, means soft cartilage under the kneecap. Chondromalacia is due to an irritation of the undersurface of the kneecap. The undersurface of the kneecap, or patella, is covered with a layer of smooth cartilage Chondromalacia Patella. Chondromalacia patella is a disease of the cartilage underneath the kneecap that causes knee pain. The medical word for the kneecap is the patella. The term chondro refers to the collagen or the cartilage, and malacia indicates disease

Chondromalacia patella - Chondromalacia patella - Treatment: The approach to the management of chondromalacia patella almost always begins with nonsurgical treatment. Surgery is reserved for those patients who continue to have symptoms despite maximal nonoperative management. The conservative approach to chondromalacia patella focuses on physical therapy and activity modification Often called runner's knee, chondromalacia patella is a common condition causing pain in the kneecap. The patella is covered with a layer of smooth cartilage, which normally glides across the knee when the joint is bent. The pain is caused by an irritation of the undersurface or patella of the kneecap as the kneecap rubs against one side of the knee joint, irritating the cartilage surface Chondromalacia patella, condition in which the cartilage on the undersurface of the kneecap (patella) becomes softened or damaged. Classically, the term refers to pathologic findings at the time of surgery. It is one of several conditions that may be referred to as runner's knee and is sometime In a prospective study of 105 arthrotomies for chondromalacia patellae, patella alta or an increased Q angle was found in most of the knees and was considered to be the usual cause of chondromalacia. The chondromalacia on the patella was usually centrally located with extension equally onto the medi

The conservative approach to chondromalacia patella focuses on physical therapy and activity modification. Simple measures such as icing, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and reducing or modifying the activity that aggravates. Chondromalacia patellae are one of the most common knee conditions. Keep in mind this joint is highly prone to injury as it supports most of the human body weight. Additionally, there are other risk factors such as age, overweight, level of activity, etc. Note that chondromalacia patellae are a relatively common condition among young adults

patellofemoralt smertesyndrom - Store medisinske leksiko

  1. Patella alta (high riding), and patella baja (low riding), are both conditions that have also been implicated as a cause of chondromalacia. Chondromalacia is also seen as a complication of injuries, immobilization, and surgical procedures that lead to quadriceps atrophy
  2. Chondromalacia patellae occurs in two distinct age-groups: It can happen in the older age-group (in the 40's and beyond) when the articular cartilage breaks down as part of the wear-and-tear process that occurs with the rest of the body
  3. in patellofemoral syndrome, the patella rubs against the inner or outer femur rather than tracking straight down the middle. as a result, the patellofemoral joint on either the inner or outer side ma
  4. Chondromalacia Patella - Best Brace, Treatment, Exercises & Prevention Plan. Knee pain is a daunting experience and it can be caused by chondromalacia patellae. Frontal achy pain, clicking sound while bending the knee, and swelling are few primary symptoms of this condition
  5. denkinél
  6. Chondromalacia Patella Symptoms Knee pain. Dull pain can be felt beneath or on the side of the patella. Pain is usually of gradual onset and becomes worse with the flexion and extension of the knees from activities such as squatting, climbing or descending stairs,.

Chondromalacia patella taping technique - YouTub

  1. Patellofemoral (puh-tel-o-FEM-uh-rul) pain syndrome is pain at the front of your knee, around your kneecap (patella). Sometimes called runner's knee, it's more common in people who participate in sports that involve running and jumping. The knee pain often increases when you run, walk up or down stairs, sit for long periods, or squat
  2. Chondromalacia Patellae. Damage to the cartilage behind the kneecap is called chondromalacia. You may feel a dull pain around or under your kneecap that gets worse when you go down stairs
  3. Chondromalacia patella is the softening and breakdown of the articular cartilage on the underside of the kneecap. There are no nerves in articular cartilage—so damage to the cartilage itself cannot directly cause pain. It can, however,.

Chondromalacia Patella Treatment. Chondromalacia is a general term referring to damage to the cartilage of the joints, but often this term is used to refer to damage to the cartilage that covers the patella (knee cap). This is because the knee joint is the area of the body most often affected by chondromalacia.. This cartilage is important as both a shock absorber and for ensuring the patella. Runner's knee is referred to as chondromalacia patellae or CMP. Chondromalacia refers to the softening of the cartilage. Runner's knee is a degenerative condition affecting the articular cartilage at the back of the kneecap (the patella). It can be a chronic or an acute condition. The Patella is a thick triangular shaped bone which sits.

The Top Chondromalacia Patella Exercises. There are many exercises for Chondromalacia Patella that can promote long-term relief of their knee condition. Tight or weak muscle structures can cause imbalances in the leg that cause significant problems in lower extremity movement Chondromalacia patella (patellofemoral syndrome) is the weakening and softening of the cartilage on the underside of the kneecap (patella) and is a common cause of knee pain, especially in women. Degeneration of this particular cartilage occurs because of improper alignment of the kneecap as it slides over the bone of the thigh (femur) Chondromalacia patellae is caused by an irritation of the underside of the kneecap. It may be the result of the simple wear-and-tear on the knee joint as we age. In younger people, it is more often due to an acute injury such as a fall or a long-term overuse injury related to sports Die Chondropathia patellae ist eine Knorpelerkrankung (= Chondropathie) der Rückfläche der Kniescheibe (= Patella). Oft tritt sie schon im jüngeren Alter auf und führt dazu, dass beim Aufstehen nach längerem Sitzen, beim Treppenlaufen, beim Hinhocken oder auch nachts, nachdem das Knie im Schlaf länger gebeugt war, das Knie wehtut Chondromalacia surgery is a surgical treatment for a condition called chondromalacia patella or runner's knee. It is used as a treatment option when more conservative treatments for this condition fail and a surgeon believes a good outcome could be achieved with surgery

5 Exercises to Defeat Chondromalacia Patella (and 3 to Avoid)How do I know if I have chondromalacia patellae (cmp

CASE 12 Chondromalacia Patellae. Hema N. Choudur, Anthony G. Ryan, Peter L. Munk, and Laurel O. Marchinkow. Clinical Presentation. An elderly woman presented complaining of long-standing anterior knee pain, especially when descending stairs and rising from a chair Die Chondropathia patellae wird auch parapatellares Schmerzsyndrom oder Kniescheibenschmerz genannt. Bei der Chondropathia patellae handelt es sich um ein Schmerzsyndrom im Bereich der Kniescheibe, das meist von den Bändern der Gelenkkapsel oder den Muskelansätzen ausgeht

Chondromalacia: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosi

Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patella): Causes, Symptoms

  1. Chondromalacia patella. Chondromalacia patellae, also known as runner's knee. It is a condition where the cartilage on the undersurface of the patella deteriorates and soften. This condition is common in young, athletic individuals, but may also occur in older adults
  2. ished so moving the patella over a trochlear defect may not yield as much movement and the ability to diagnose a cartilage defect of the.
  3. . 2/24/2020. 105 plays (2) CASES (1) Patella & trochlear chondral lesions in 38F (C1462) Knee & Sports - Idiopathic Chondromalacia Patellae E 3/29/2013.
  4. There is severe patellofemoral chondromalacia with a 6mm full-thickness erosion (images 1 and 2, green arrows, trochlear erosions) (image 3, green arrow, subchondral erosions) (images 4, green arrow, patellar erosion) involving the medial facet of the patella and associated subchondral cyst formation
  5. Chondromalacia patellae er forårsaket av en irritasjon på undersiden av knekken. Det kan være et resultat av den enkle slitasje på knæleddet når vi alder. Hos yngre mennesker er det oftere på grunn av akutt skade som for eksempel høst eller langvarig overdreven skade i forbindelse med sport
  6. Chondromalacia. What Is It? Published: November, 2018. The joints in your body are cushioned with a type of tissue called articular cartilage. This tough, rubbery tissue covers the ends of bones inside a joint. As the joint moves, the cartilage helps to cushion the bones and allows them to glide smoothly against one another

Chondromalacia Patella Arthritis Foundatio

Chondromalacia Patellae. Chondromalacia patellae is the pathologic entity of cartilage softening on the underside of the kneecap. Typically, this condition is an overuse syndrome. Poor muscle tone, overdeveloped vastus lateralis, flexibility deficits, pes planus, and blunt trauma to the knee predispose to the condition chondromalacia (countable and uncountable, plural chondromalacias) A painful condition caused by irritation of cartilage , often in the undersurface of the kneecap . Synonyms [ edit Category:Chondromalacia patellae. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Jump to navigation Jump to search chondromalacia patellae Human disease. Upload media Wikipedia: Instance of: disease, arthropathy, developmental defect during embryogenesis: Subclass of: chondromalacia, knee disorder, bone disease, patellar. Chondromalacia patellae is softening of the cartilage underneath the patella. Chondromalacia patellae often causes generalized knee pain especially when climbing or descending stairs, playing sports that exert an axial load on the knee, or sitting for a long time (theater sign). Usually the pain. Medical definition of chondromalacia patellae: pain over the front of the knee with softening of the articular cartilage of the patella

Chondromalacia Patellae Causes, Symptoms Exercises and

  1. Chondromalacia patella is a common running complaint for active people of all ages that involves pain and inflammation under or around the knee cap (patella). The kneecap sits on a shallow groove at the front of the knee. When the leg is bent the knee cap (patella) moves backwards and forwards in this groove. Causes
  2. Chondromalacia patellae (CMP), meaning softening of the articular cartilage of the patella, is often accompanied by fibrillation, fissuring, and erosion of the cartilage [1]
  3. Chondromalacia Patellae is a knee condition in which the cartilage that connects the undersurface of the knee bone starts softening and deteriorating, resulting in grinding sounds and moderate-to-severe knee pain. Consult an orthopedic specialist for an accurate treatment plan. It is often considered a sports overuse injury; hence the alternative name 'Runner's Knee'
  4. ing the underlying cause of the abnormal stress on the patella. The patient will be counseled on which activities he or she can safely continue and which should be avoided
  5. How to say chondromalacia patellae in English? Pronunciation of chondromalacia patellae with 2 audio pronunciations, 1 meaning, 7 translations and more for chondromalacia patellae
  6. Chondromalacia patellae (also known as CMP) is an inflammation of the underside of the patella and softening of the cartilage.. Contents. Cause; Treatment; See also; References; External links; The cartilage under the kneecap is a natural shock absorber, and overuse, injury, and many other factors can cause increased deterioration and breakdown of the cartilage

5 Exercises to Defeat Chondromalacia Patella (and 3 to Avoid

  1. Since chondromalacia patellae is usually a self-limiting condition, palliative conservative treatment is appropriate-namely, analgesics, suitable physiotherapy, and a support for the patella. Strict avoidance ofall sports andgames, a serious deprivation for an adolescent, should not be necessary.
  2. Chondromalacia patellae is softening of the cartilage underneath the patella. Chondromalacia patellae often causes generalized knee pain especially when climbing or descending stairs, playing sports that exert an axial load on the knee, or sitting for a long time (theater sign)
  3. View messages from patients providing insights into their medical experiences with Chondromalacia Patella - Treatment. Share in the message dialogue to help others and address questions on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments, from MedicineNet's doctors
  4. Chondromalacia patella generally occurs in teenagers and young adults and is more common in females than in males. The patella is a piece of bone that is positioned over the knee joint. When the knee joint is used, the patella moves over the knee joint. Chondromalacia patella occurs when the patella does not move properly and rubs against the.
  5. Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page

Chondromalacia patellae is characterized as the inflammation of the underside of the patella, or kneecap, caused by the softening of the cartilage surrounding the soft tissues of the knee joint. This well-known health issue is generally caused due to sports injuries in young athletes, although chondromalacia patellae may also occur in older adults with arthritis in the knee Medical definition of chondromalacia: abnormal softness of cartilage Patella Chondromalacia, or runners knee, is a condition where the articular cartilage, located underneath the kneecap (patella), starts to soften and break down. This cartilage is usually smooth and allows the knee joint to move freely as the knee bends Chondromalacia patella (CMP) is a condition where the articular cartilage covering the posterior side of the patella gets damaged. [4] Strengthening and stretching exercises are the 2 types of physical exercises which are recommended in order to recover as well as stop chondromalacia patella (CMP) from recurrence CHONDROMALACIA PATELLA- MRI GRADING Introduction: Chondromalacia patellae is characterized by patello-femoral (retropatellar) joint pain, accentuated during knee flexion, and associated crepitus. Softening of the articular cartilage with associated degenerative changes is responsible for the spectrum of changes seen

Chondromalacia Patellae. Chondromalacia Patella. Saved by Mahmoud H. ElShenawy. 15. Chondromalacia Patellae Anatomy Of The Knee Radiology Imaging Study Education Muscles Bones Health Fitness chondromalacia patellae 1. CHONDROMALACIAPATELLAE 2. Literal translation - Soft CartilageAKA:• Patellofemoral overload syndrome• Patellar Pain syndrome• Anterior knee pain syndrome• Runners Knee 3 Define chondromalacia. chondromalacia synonyms, chondromalacia pronunciation, chondromalacia translation, English dictionary definition of chondromalacia. n. Abnormal softening or degeneration of cartilage of the joints, especially of the knee i have grade 2 chondromalacia patella and grade 3 of the trochlear groove, confirmed via arthroscopy. does this qualify me for knee replacement? Answered by Dr. Michelle Huggins: No: Surgical replacement of the knee is the last resort. Regular exer..

Chondromalacia patellae | Image | RadiopaediaDrKT Tape Chondromalacia Patella (Patellar Malalignment

Chondromalacia Patella Symptoms & Treatmen

Chondromalacia patellae synonyms, Chondromalacia patellae pronunciation, Chondromalacia patellae translation, English dictionary definition of Chondromalacia patellae. n. Abnormal softening or degeneration of cartilage of the joints, especially of the knee The patients with chondromalacia patellae (without considering the grades) and without chondromalacia patellae were evaluated using the same five patellar maltracking parameters, and the relationship between patellofemoral joint morphology and the presence of chondromalacia patellae was interpreted

Chondromalacia Patellae - Physiopedi

Chondromalacia Patella Brace Wearing a knee brace for chondromalacia patella support will help absorb the shock and offload the pain while helping align the patella to help it keep tracking in place. Athletes who play or participate in running , soccer , baseball , snowboarding , and volleyball have a higher risk of injury Therapy: Chondromalacia patella (runners knee) is due to overload of the patellofemoral joint (knee cap against the end of the thigh bone). Running causes hig Read More. Send thanks to the doctor. A 46-year-old member asked: where is the best treatment out there for chondromalacia patellae Apr 18, 2019 - Explore JamieLUnderwood's board Chondromalacia Patellae, followed by 122 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about Chondromalacia, Knee exercises, Knee pain

Chondromalacia patellae | Radiology Reference Article
  • Würzburg news aktuell.
  • Npwm rozpad.
  • Chili con carne maggi.
  • Hvordan henger samfunn skatt og arbeidsliv sammen.
  • Hua hin vær juli.
  • Treningsparker oslo.
  • Olivenolje i gulrotkake.
  • Utomhussiren z wave.
  • Koherens norsk.
  • Single malt circle düsseldorf.
  • Therme rheinland pfalz.
  • Kombinert nm 2018.
  • Retinitis pigmentosa arvegang.
  • Sandstorm på kanariøyene.
  • Griechische mythologie filme.
  • Askøy nettleie.
  • Natursirup.
  • Klima georgia.
  • Mehrere bilder whatsapp status.
  • Goldstrand bulgarien erfahrungen.
  • Bmw x7 electric.
  • Høyesterettsdommer ansettelse.
  • Co2 temperatur.
  • Oxycodone 5mg.
  • Enkeltpersonforetak juridisk person.
  • Kommunale tomter oslo.
  • Hippie music from the 60 and 70.
  • Kvinner i hermetikkindustrien.
  • Erste hilfe kurs köln weiden.
  • Hip hop tanzschule bremen.
  • Ios 11.0 3 iphone 5s.
  • Ch 124 sea king.
  • Primus på fly.
  • Glaucoma simplex.
  • Frag einen anwalt kosten.
  • Grave ut kjeller selv.
  • Salme 23 psalm 121.
  • Jennifer meyer.
  • Maskeringstape blå.
  • Etter operasjon av galleblære.
  • Språk i sør sudan.